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Describe ADHD and explain a pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical treatment for the condition.


Discussion: Attention

You need the ability to shift the focus of your attention from one object to another, depending on the situation. There are early-selection and late-selection models to propose what might draw your attention to a particular target and research has identified several brain areas that are involved in shifting attention. These processes of maintaining and shifting attention are important in your daily life, such as when driving, and they have clinical implications. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a disorder that impacts the ability to maintain or shift attention. Some consider ADHD both an overdiagnosed and underdiagnosed neurodevelopmental condition. Diagnosis can be challenging, but it is thought to affect about 7% of children and adolescents worldwide and about 11% of the population in the United States. Understanding attention and the biological basis of how to shift or maintain that attention may be the first step to treating the underlying cause of this disease.

Related to attention is the idea of consciousness. These terms are sometimes used interchangeably, but they can mean very different things. In the broader sense, consciousness is that emergent property that is fundamental to human existence and potentially separates us from other living things. Researchers have struggled to define and study consciousness, generally breaking it down into easy problems, which can probably be addressed with current research techniques, and hard problems, which are the “how” and “why” questions that cannot be addressed in an obvious way by today’s techniques.

For this Discussion, you will summarize the different models of attention and the brain areas involved. You will consider ADHD and the common pharmaceutical treatment. Finally, you will describe consciousness and the how researchers define the easy and hard problems of consciousness.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the Post to Discussion Question link, and then select Create Thread to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts—and cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit.

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources, focusing on the models and types of attention and the regions of the brain involved in attention and shifts of attention. As you read about attention, consider the efficacy of multitasking. Finally, be sure you can differentiate between the easy and hard problems of consciousness.

By Day 3

Post a response to the following:

  • Describe the early-selection and late-selection models of attention.
  • Describe the brain areas involved in attention.
    • Differentiate between the areas involved in voluntarily shifting attention and those involved in reflexive shifts of attention.
  • Describe ADHD and explain a pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical treatment for the condition. Include an assessment of the effectiveness of each treatment.
  • Define consciousness and differentiate between the easy and hard problems of consciousness.

Support your posting with specific references from literature in the Walden Library and Learning Resources. zero plagiarizing,, Quote work, No.com’s

Required Readings

Breedlove, S. M., & Watson, N. V. (2019). Behavioral neuroscience (9th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Chapter 18, “Attention and Higher Cognition”

Grubert, A., & Eimer, M. (2016). Rapid attentional selection processes operate independently and in parallel for multiple targets. Biological Psychology, 121 Pt A, 99–108. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.10.012

Kreitz, C., Furley, P., Memmert, D., & Simons, D. J. (2015). Inattentional blindness and individual differences in cognitive abilities. PLoS ONE, 10(8), 1–27. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134675

Ougrin, D., Chatterton, S., & Banarsee, R. (2010). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Review for primary care clinicians. London Journal of Primary Care, 3(1), 45–51.

Overgaard, M. (2017). The status and future of consciousness research. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01719

Richard-Lepouriel, H., Kung, A.-L., Hasler, R., Bellivier, F., Prada, P., Gard, S., … Etain, B. (2019). Impulsivity and its association with childhood trauma experiences across bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 244, 33–41. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2018.07.060


Final Paper Guidelines: Biologic Basis of Neurologic or Psychiatric Disorder

Optional Resources

Optional Readings

Glickstein, M. (2014). Neuroscience: A historical introduction. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

  • Chapter 20, “Consciousness and the Techniques for Study of the Human Brain”

Note: You will access this resource through the Walden Library databases.

Optional Media

Robbins, A. (2013, June). Apollo Robbins: The art of misdirection [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/apollo_robbins_the_art_o…
Note: The length of this media is approximately 9 minutes.

TED. (n.d.). What is consciousness? [Video playlist]. Available from


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