A horizontal, insulated cylinder has a frictionless piston held against stops by an external force of 500 kN. The piston cross-sectional area is 0.5 m2, and the initial volume is 0.25 m3. Argon gas in the cylinder is at 200 kPa, 100°C. A valve is now opened to a line flowing argon at 1.2 MPa, 200°C, and gas flows in until the cylinder pressure just balances the external force, at which point the valve is closed. Use constant heat capacity to verify that the final temperature is 645 K and find the total entropy generation.

Using EES (or other) software, determine the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle for air for a mass flow rate of 3 kg/s and inlet stagnation conditions of 1400 kPa and 2008C. Approximate the flow as isentropic. Repeat the calculations for 50-kPa increments of pressure drop to an exit pressure of 100 kPa. Plot the nozzle to scale. Also, calculate and plot the Mach number along the nozzle.

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