A brief introduction to the Malaysian social formation will also be explained in order for readers to better understand the grievances among races in Malaysia. I will also investigate how bumiputraism is used by the previous ruling government in maintaining power for 61 uninterrupted years. With a new government in power, I will also study the new coalition of government and how it will play a different role in Malaysia today. This will also determine whether racial and patronage party politics under UMNO-Barisan Nasional will continue under Pakatan Harapan.
analyse what led to the loss of the previous Barisan Nasional government in the 14th General Election. A closer look into the voting patterns in the 14th General Election will be examined and its findings will be compared to previous voting patterns in past elections. The main purpose of this is to discover if there is a change in voting trends. I will utilize a qualitative research such as primary and secondary sources, interviews and data collection from the Election Commission in finding out the state of unity of the races in Malaysia in terms of voting and where the Malaysian political parties stand and how this will affect racial unity moving forward. The questions that I intend to answer are:
1. What is the meaning of “New Malaysia”?
2. Why did Barisan Nasional lose?
3. Is 1MDB and corruption a turning point in this election?
4. Is ethnic voting still prevalent in GE14?
5. Will the UMNO-PAS pact and its Malay agenda affect national unity and racial harmony?
6. Will UMNO move towards the far right of the political spectrum?
7. Does race play a factor in Pakatan Harapan’s inability to fulfil its manifesto?
8. What does the continuation of the bumiputra policies mean in New Malaysia?
9. Does a total change in the structure of the coalition of today’s government where no single party holds the biggest share of seats in parliament help move Malaysia beyond ethnic politics?
10. What does inclusivity and greater representation of Non-Malays in today’s high governmental positions mean?
PROPOSED CHAPTER OUTLINE
• Explain the emergence of the new national ideology of “New Malaysia” post Malaysia’s 14th General Election
• Brief of overview of the topic and arguments
– Literature Review
– The Defeat of Barisan Nasional
• UMNO and its politics of race and patronage
• 1MDB, Corruption, and Abuse of Power
• Social Media – Undi Rabu
• Mahathir-Anwar Factor
• Pakatan Harapan’s Populist Policies
– Is Malaysia moving beyond ethnic politics?
• Pakatan Harapan Manifesto
• Pakatan Harapan: A coalition of equals
• The continuation of the Bumiputra policies
• UMNO-PAS Pact
Please create a chart or graph that explains the voting patterns in two or three elections. One being GE14. This dissertation will mainly explain whether Malaysia will be able to move beyond ethnic politics post the 14th General Election. Please also explain how the affirmative action NEW ECONOMIC POLICY of favouring the poor bumiputeras will not help Malaysia move beyond ethnic politics.
For the theoretical approach, critiquing primordialism and focusing on more instrumentalist or constructivist approaches (e.g. Paul Brass, or Kanchan Chandra (ed.) (2012) Constructivist Theories of Ethnic Conflict) is suggested.
Also explain the resilience of bumiputraism. the work of Tom Pepinsky may prove useful in outlining competing explanations of the transforming electoral patterns (e.g. economic factors, generational change) and how ethnic politics and corruption fit in.
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