One of the key differencesbetween the two rival states of Sparta and Athens was that Athenswas a democracy,whereas Sparta was made up of Oligarchy. The ways of ruling between the two hence led to multiplebattles on the way of leadership and association, which asa result led to conflicts. Anotherdifference between the two is that Athens fought for the democratic reforms of Cleisthenes, where on the other hand Sparta opposedthese reforms, hence resulting in a major fight. A thirddifferencebetween the two is that Athens startedtreatingfellowmembers as ruled subjects instead of partners, and also engaged in short wars as away of forcing members who had quit the league to rejoin it. Such moves were interpreted by Sparta to be acts of provocation, where Sparta hence canceled its earlier treaty resulting in more conflict.
The Greeksextendedtheirterritories to the EasternMediterranean which wasinitially dominated by the Persians. The influence of Persia in the Mediterranean was hence lost in the later 4th century after Alexander conquered the region. The Greco-Persian wars in the 5th century areone of the major factorsthat weakened Persians and made them feel from controlling the East Mediterranean. This resulted in the Greek success in the wars, where a large contingentof Persian fleets wasdestroyed. The Persiangarrisonsalso got expelled, making the end to their advancingin the westwardsof the continent.
One of the greatest achievements of Alexander the Great, was the proliferation of the Greek culture. The culture had a very vital influence on the areas in which Alexander conquered. As aresult, the culture began a new era of history which is known as the Hellenistic Age. The culture is still practiced by the GreekSocietycenturiesafter his death. The second accomplishment of Alexander was the establishment of cities, which includethe Egyptian city which is currently home to over 4.5 millionpeople. Many Alexandrians were located on trade routes, a factor that led to a surge in the flow of commodities between the East and West, hence leading to the development of urban centers. Finally, Alexander brought about Unity in the region, where people of divergentculturesand religions were tolerated. Soldiers, traders, goods,and customers all mingled together without discrimination. This is a legacy that has been emulated by many in the North, even after the demise of Alexander.
The ancientGreeks left behind multiple legacies in various fields, where theirlegacies have played a major role in influencing modern civilizations. one of the mainlegacies the Greeks left was their Philosophy. Most of the ancient philosophers were from Greek, where they included Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato, and are currently studied by many scholars. Philosophyentails the love of wisdom and was created bn to help in understanding the world ina non-religious way. Socrates tried to answer the question of “what is right and Wrong”, whereasPlato usesdialogue in writing to expound on justiceand the types of governance. Aristotle’sphilosophy entailed reasoning about the middle ground between good and bad, where he alsoutteredAlexander the Great, who ended up being one of the best kings. The philosophy from the ancient Greeksis still applied in the modern era to understandnumerousissues in the society including modes of governance.